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– REGION: Vermont
Petra Cliffs Climbing Center & Mountaineering School focuses on climbing and mountain-related education and recreation, accessible to all ages and abilities. We seek to offer premium instruction and services through experience-based education, uncom……More
– REGION: New Hampshire
CATHEDRAL MOUNTAIN GUIDES is a New Hampshire climbing guiding service founded in 2008 by American Mountain Guide Association certified guide Bayard Russell, Jr. and now run in partnership with local guide, accomplished alpinist and Piolet d’Or R……More
– REGION: Ontario
SUPERIOR EXPLORATION ADVENTURE & CLIMBING CO. LTD ran by Shaun Parent is one of the most knowledgeable guiding services in the area. They provide rock and ice climbing courses and guiding in the Lake Superior region. The Climbing school NORTH OF S……More
– REGION: New York (north)
Adirondack Mountain Guides guarantees a friendly, welcoming smile, positive attitude and an experienced guide with thorough knowledge of the area. Ian is one of the most knowledgeable and motivated guides in the Adirondacks.
– REGION: New York (south)
Bigfoot Mountain Guides goal is to share their love of the outdoors and climbing with you, while providing a rewarding and memorable outdoor experience. Bigfoot Mountain Guides offer daily rock climbing and ice climbing outings in New England……More
– REGION: New York (south)
Alpine Endeavors operates year-round for rock climbing, ice climbing, alpine climbing, and mountaineering, In addition to our climbing services, we offer guided hikes and snowshoeing of our local areas, navigation skills, Leave No Trace cours……More
Mixed Grades: M1-M?
M1 - Feels like 5.5 climbing.
M2 – Feels like 5.6 climbing.
M3 – Feels like 5.7 climbing.
M4 – Feels like 5.8 climbing.
M5 – Feels like 5.9 climbing; using the blades of ice axes in cracks to torque and dry-hook is useful.
M6 – Feels like 5.10 climbing; using the blades of ice axes in cracks to torque and dry-hook is mandatory.
M7 – Feels like 5.11 climbing; using ice axes and crampons in such a way as to make the climb impossible with out them. Usually somewhat overhanging.
M8 – Feels like 5.12 climbing; using ice axes and crampons in such a way as to make the climb impossible without them. Involves overhanging and sustained climbing.
M9 - Feels like 5.13 climbing, using ice axes and crampons in such a way as to make the climb impossible without them. Involves severely sustained and extremely overhanging climbing.
M10 - Similar to 5.14 climbing; gymnastic ability, physical stamina, and a strong mind are all prerequisites; a handful of climbers in the world are capable of climbing this grade.
M11 -M? – The system is open ended.
Ice Grades: WI 1-7
WI 1 – Easy, low-angled ice. Walking up ice where crampons are necessary. The easiest ice for which a belay rope would be used. A basic level of technical expertise for safety is required. General angle: 50 degrees.
WI 2 – Moderate, low-angled water ice with short bulges. Good protection and anchors. Front-points of the crampons may or may not be required. General angle: 60 degrees.
WI 3 – Steeper water ice, with longer bulges. Some continuous front pointing but with good resting places between. Generally good protection, screws can be placed from comfortable stances. The ice is usually of good quality. Requires adeptness at placing protection and making belays. General angle: 70 degrees.
WI 4 – Sustained climbing with some vertical sections, separated by good belays. The ice may have some technical features like chandeliers but generally the quality of ice is good and offers secure protection and belays. Usually demands that screws be placed while on vertical or near vertical ice. General angle: 80 degrees.
WI 5 – A long, steep, strenuous, columnar pitch of ice. Sustained difficulties with little opportunity to rest. Expertise in dealing with the different ice formations is required (e.g., chandeliers, cauliflowers, candled sections). Adequate protection requires effort to place. The climb may sometimes be run-out above protection. Belays may be difficult to create and/or hanging. General angle: 90 degrees.
WI 6 A serious lead on severe and/or thin ice. Long vertical and/or overhanging sections, extremely sustained difficulties. Few, if any, resting sites. Ice may not be of the best quality, often thin, chandeliered and hard to protect. Expert technique and a powerful, positive mind frame are prerequisites. Hanging belays of dubious quality may be required. General angle: 90+ degrees.
WI 7 Ice that is very thin, long, overhanging or very technical. Free-hanging columns of dubious adhesion. This grade requires creative techniques to climb and to find protection. Protection may be non-existent. A very physical and emotional pitch. Total commitment is required. Belays require a very high level of expertise, and may be marginal at best. This grade applies to only a handful of routes led by an even fewer number of world class climbers. WI 7 is the outer space of ice climbing. General angle: 90++ degrees.
Aid ratings: A1-A5
There are two aid rating systems being employed today: Traditional Aid (A), and Clean Aid (C). Traditional Aid allowing use of a hammer; Clean Aid does not involve use of a hammer. Otherwise, the two seem to correspond well with the numbers:
A/C1. Straightforward aiding; secure gear and lots of it; little chance of falling.
A/C2. More involved aiding; minor traverses and/or overhangs; secure gear and lots of it; length of potential fall from crux is short.
A/C3. Technical aiding; traverses and/or overhangs; gear less than optimal; climbing may be thin with run-outs above secure gear; somewhat lengthy potential fall from crux.
A/C4. Very difficult technical aiding; major roofs and/or traverses; poor gear with long run-outs; length of potential fall from the crux may be as long as a full pitch.
A/C5. Involves aid climbing which defies death; a fall would be onto the belay or the ground.
** a plus sign (+) or a minus sign (-) may be used within a(n) A/C grade to indicate a greater or lesser degree of difficulty, respectively.
A protection rating indicates the spacing and quality of the protection available, for a well-equipped and skilled leader.
G – Good, solid protection
PG – Pretty good, few sections of poor or non-existent placements
PG13 – OK protection, falls may be long but will probably not cause serious injury.
R – Runout, some protection placements may be very far apart (possibility of broken bones, even when properly protected)
X – No protection, extremely dangerous (possibility of death, even when properly protected)
Commitment ratings: UIAA I-VII
Union Internationale des Associations d’Alpinisme
(UIAA) seems to be the standard from which most commitment ratings are drawn. The commitment rating is intended to describe the overall time commitment of a particular route, including the approach and descent logistics. Generally, the UIAA scheme has been adapted herein in a continued attempt to accord with more widespread rating systems. While there are few, if any, ice routes in the Northeast which are more committing than grade III, the entire scale has been paraphrased here as a reference:
I. Route which may be completed in a matter of a few hours.
II. Route which may be completed in half a day.
III. Route which may require an entire day.
IV. Route which may be done in a very long day by a fast team, but a bivouac may be needed by teams of average speed.
V. Route which will require at least one bivouac on the route. May require two or three days to complete the route.
VI. Very long alpine climb taking as long as a week to complete.
VII. An alpine climb of epic proportions.
Ice Climbing Links
December 9th, 2014
A great film by Petzl on proper ice screw placement technique, as well as how to set an anchor and a v-thread.
Ice climbing basics: Ice screw p[…]
October 8th, 2013
A great video and report on the forces at work on slings in four different belay set-ups.
I have always tied in with both ropes and used clove hitc[…]
December 11th, 2012
Tip of the Week from Rockies Ice Specialists Inc.
How to complete an Abalakov – aka V-Thread – without your hooker. I used 8mm cord in this video […]
March 9th, 2012
by Doug Millen
It’s the never-ending battle! What will an ice screw hold, in real life situations, and how best to protect an ice climb with it’s e[…]
February 10th, 2012
How strong are abolokov threads, ice screws and re-bored holes for anchors?
Lots of data and strong opinions out there. Do the tests repres[…]
August 7th, 2011
New Smartphone App by Jimbl
A Camping planner pre-populated and customizable
A configurable planner with everything needed for a[…]
September 17th, 2009
by Dave Furman
More and more recently I’ve come across all sorts of gear left on ice climbs, left when people rap off or when people can’t finish a r[…]
August 29th, 2009
Originally developed for the military, this new silicone tape is ideal for wrapping your ice tool. And with the 6 different colors it is easy to indiv[…]
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