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Archive for the ‘Teck Tips’ Category

Ice Climbing Anchor Strength

Clean V -Tread anchor

Ridgerunner & Larry show us that in solid dry ice you don't need to leave a thread, just use the rope (a thin rope). Always backup the first person down and have them give a test pull. But as per the data, the orientation should have been vertical. But would this still work? Read below and you decide.

Updated!

How strong are abolokov threads, ice screws and re-bored holes for anchors?

Lots of data and strong opinions out there. Do the tests represent real world conditions? We have put together several resources for a broad view of ice protection strength. This will help us all understand how to better protect the ice we climb.

“Learning good skills at where and when to place ice screws remains an art, although our science is helping us compose a better picture of ice anchor behavior experienced in real-world conditions”  – George McEwan

- Rock-Ice.com

“Where to put the pro? It might be ok or even preferable to use someone elses ice screw placement to avoid pump, to be able to use that dull screw without bite, and to avoid ice fracture propagation.

Recently re-bored holes in a freezing environment were found to be strong enough in most configurations.

Abalakov ice anchors were also found to be strong, provided that enough ice area was enclosed by the anchor. This is accepted as a fact based on trial and few error among ice climbers, but maybe haven’t been examined in a proper experiment before.

Ready to change? Placing Abalakov anchors vertically appear to be stronger than placing them horizontally. A vertical “A-thread” Abalakov was superior to a horizontal “V-thread” Abalakov.

Climbers may actually have to change behaviour here. Will those results be all it takes, or do we need to hear this from authorities such as the UIAA and see it done by the elite in the glossy gear catalogs first?

Anyway, a 60 degree angle seems to be the best for Abalakov V-threads.

Feeling safer with a v-thread than a stubby? Don’t. A single re-bored short (8 cm) ice screw is generally about the same in strength as a horizontal Abalakov anchor.

During Petzl’s testing, ice screws were on average twice as strong as ice threads.”

Read the rest of the report […]

 

- PETZL


Ice anchor Workshop by Petzl-crew

“Petzl partnered with the “Ice Climbing Ecrins” event to organize a workshop to test the pull-out strength of ice screws and ice threads. Petzl built a mini test center on a frozen creek in the Fournel valley. The pull-out strength was tested using an equalized belay anchor attached to a jack and a chain. Ice screws, ice threads and ice axes were attached to the system and pull tested. The pull-out strength was measured using a dynamometer. The results varied a great deal depending on the quality of the ice. The workshop took place over two consecutive days and the results were quite different from one day to the next. Despite this, the tests showed that ice screws were on average twice as strong as ice threads.”

___________________________________________________

- Chad Pomerleau

January 2, 2010  / Comment

“The v-thread is a great piece of know-how to use. A few points.  It is my understanding that convexities in ice are weak points, as there is increase surface tension and studies have shown that when ice anchors (threads, screws) fail, the majority of the ice that is lost causing them to fail is lost from the zone of increased tension (above, in a downward pull) and next to no loss from the zone of compression. Or consider swinging into a bulge in the ice with a tool vs swinging into a concavity. Furthermore, when possible surface ice should be removed to expose the more homogenous ice below that isn’t as exposed to temperature variation, sunlight, and snow-cover; also providing a flat surface in in which to screw.

Also, some interesting reading can be found on vertical orientation of threads (‘A’-thread) vs horizontal orientatoin (v-thread)  below.”

http://www.beverlymountainguides.com/file_download/5/Ice-Climbing-Anchor-Strength.pdf

______________________________________________________

- UKClimbing.com

“Some time ago a study analyzing ice climbing anchor strength appeared on the internet. This practical field study was carried out by J.Marc Beverly and Stephen W. Attaway and was titled “Ice Climbing Anchor Strength: An In-depth Analysis”.

In it the authors set out to test several hypotheses about ice anchors – namely that re-bored ice screws were strong enough to hold a UIAA fall and that Abalakov threads were stronger than an ice screw. All these tests were done over the winter of 2007 – 2008 and followed up an earlier study they had done on ‘stubby’ (circa 13cm length) screws in 2005 – 2006 (Dynamic Shock Load Evaluation of Ice Screws: A Real World Look).”

– George McEwan

Read the report http://www.ukclimbing.com/articles/page.php?id=4315

______________________________________________________

- NEice.com

How to make a V-tread by Dave Furman

An update from Dave:

First, on screw vs v-thread strength. I’ve seen the petzl video stuff and also seen a bunch of other testing. Most of it was done in lake ice or the “frozen slushy” ice in a bucket that used to get used for testing screws. My own experience is that many times the ice on the routes where I get scared is hollow, candled, full of air pockets, etc…I do not believe that the ice I have seen in the testing cited is comparable to the “bad areas” of ice on climbing routes that I’m referring to…so what I SHOULD have said is that a v-thread CAN BE stronger than a screw in SOME CIRCUMSTANCES. If the ice is good it probably doesn’t matter, they are both plenty strong–but if the ice is really bad, then my own non-scientific testing (i.e. placing a variety of gear in crappy ice and body-weight-testing to failure)has convinced me that the thread can often be the stronger option.

Regarding concavity vs convexity–again, I am going to claim it’s circumstantial. Much of the testing done in this area is dynamic, i.e. a fall. I am a bonafide chickenshit so when I rappel from a crappy anchor (or anything in ice) I am darn sure I am not bouncing around, so I consider any force I put on the anchor a lot less dynamic. When I’ve played with weighting and bouncing around on threads in different ice, convexities like a pillar don’t seem to fracture much at all that way they might under the force of a real fall–and remember, we’re backing all of these up, right? I do. For this reason I place my threads around a convexity IF IT SEEMS APPROPRIATE simply as a matter of convenience when placing the thread, because all other things being equal I haven’t found that it makes a significant difference in real-world strength (again, tested unscientifically by placing lots of threads in various ice and bounce-testing to failure). At the end of the day though, the best place to put a screw or a thread is going to be in the best ice, and you are going to have to be the judge of that–that seems obvious but I should have mentioned it. I would encourage anyone who has read this far to go and experiment for yourself–I would argue that if you do it in a thoughtful manner you’ll learn a hell of a lot more than I or anyone else or any book or article can teach you.

Thin Ice Protection

Now this is the ice I want to be able to protect!

An early attempt for good protection on bad ice. I used Tuna hooks from the local tackle shop. Just hook the hooks into what ever you can find and equalize. I see that in the photo the cord should have been tied with a knot, similar to an equalized belay with a cordelette. The system held a surprising amount of weight. I would say “enough to slow me down”. Protection at the extreme end!

-Doug

Source: Petzl.com, Beverlymountainguides.com, ukclimbing.com,Daily motion.com, Dave Furman, Chad Pomerleau, JP
Photo by Ridgerunner, NEice Photopost

Camping Trip Planner

New Smartphone App by Jimbl

Android System

A Camping planner pre-populated and customizable

A configurable planner with everything needed for any camping trip. Comes pre-populated with more than 225 camping items. If you are a camping person, this is all you need to ensure you don’t forget anything. Check/uncheck and reuse every-time you go on camping trips. Save all the time typing the camping list. Easy and very intuitive thumb friendly check/uncheck options.

So customizable that it could be configured for any trip…easy to use and it will share the list via popular networks and email.

Great App!

Worth every penny. At $.99 how can you go wrong. Find it at the marketplace on your android phone. Or  Go to the Web Site

Doug

Training Blog – Rest

by Steve House

“Rest. Rest, is a four-letter word. Funny, I like a lot of four-letter words, but I, like many of you, have a hard time with this one.”

Training Blog – Rest 3/1/10

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Rope Tips #1

Skinny Singles: How Thin Can You Go?

by Justropes.com

Modern single ropes keep getting thinner and thinner, pushing the envelope of what is possible for a balance of performance and weight savings. Is a “skinny” single right for you, and if so, how thin you should go? The answers depend on the type of climbing you intend to do with these thin single cords.

“Skinny” single ropes are those below 10 mm in diameter, and they seem to keep getting thinner each season. While these ropes typically range between 9.4 to 9.8 mm in diameter, the cutting edge at present is 9.1 to 9.2 mm (the Beal “Joker” and the Mammut “Revelation”). Maxim will have a new 9.1 mm single in 2006, and the envelope will be pushed even further by a new 8.9 mm single that Mammut will market in 2006!

These thin single cords typically weigh in around a lean 53 grams/meter (for 9.1-9.2 mm), 58 grams/meter (for 9.4-9.5 mm) and 62 grams/meter (for 9.7-9.8 mm). For comparison, a 9.5 mm, 60 m single rope is almost 1.5 pounds lighter than the equivalent 10.5 mm cord! Of course, you don’t get something for nothing. As common sense would dictate, the thinner a rope is, the fewer falls it can hold, and the less durable it will be. Super-thin skinny cords (e.g. 9.1-9.2 mm) have UIAA fall ratings of about 5, while the fall rating improves to about 6/7 for 9.4-9.5 mm ropes, and to about 7/8 for the more beefy 9.7-9.8 mm skinny ropes. Compared to the typical UIAA fall rating of 11 for a 10.5 mm single rope, one can see that the weight savings of skinny singles is gained at the cost of fall rating and durability.

While a few of the skinny singles are UIAA Sharp Edge rated, by far most are not. At present, only the Beal Joker 9.1 mm is UIAA rated for use as both a twin and half/double, as well as single. Using this rope as a twin increases the fall rating substantially.

So, how do you decide if a skinny single is right for you, and just how thin you should go? The key factor in choosing will often be whether you intend to use the rope to climb long, wandering, alpine-style routes, where rope drag will be an issue, or whether you intend to mostly climb routes that are linear and don’t wander, such as typically found at the local ice or rock crag, or cliff. Another important factor is whether you intend to use the rope for hard redpoint/onsight attempts, or for working routes and/or toproping.

Skinny singles are a solid choice for rock/alpine/ice climbers expecting to encounter many pitches and looking to save substantial weight. They still offer a solid safety reserve in terms of falls rating, and on many climbs, any rope drag can be controlled by careful use of longer slings (if the skinny single is also rated as a half/double, it can also be used in this format for any wandering pitches). They are often a great choice for climbers working hard routes for redpoints or onsights, where you don’t want extra pounds holding you down. On the flip side, they are probably not the right choice for working routes or doing a lot of toproping, where a thicker more durable 10+ mm single rope is going to shine. And they are probably not the best choice for use on any type of route, whether alpine, ice, or rock, that is going to wander to the point where the only way to control drag is with a double/half rope system.

As for how thin to go, just remember that the thinner the skinny single, the less falls it will hold and the less durable it is likely to be. So, most climbers considering their first thin cord will likely want to consider something 9.5 mm and up, saving the super-thin cords for redpointing, etc. If you decide to grab one this season, Beal, Esprit, Edelrid, Maxim, Mammut, and PMI all offer a range of great skinny single ropes. Get out there and climb safe!

How to make a V-tread

by Dave Furman

More and more recently I’ve come across all sorts of gear left on ice climbs, left when people rap off or when people can’t finish a route and rap or lower off. In the interest of keeping the chat room posturing to a minimum and to help preserve everybody’s rack, here is how I place a V-thread and retreat from an ice climb. (I feel like I’m uniquely qualified to write this, as I have retreated off of ice climbs in fourteen states, including almost every route at lake Willoughby and in smugglers notch.) A V-thread is stronger than a screw because the surface area of the ice you are supporting your weight on is much greater than that of the threads on an ice screw. Many people don’t trust them however, so what follows is my method of backing up and testing rappel anchors in general, as well as directions for making a V-thread.

Once you’ve decided you’re done, whether you’re at the top of the climb or not, you’ll want to examine your options—if there’s an easy walk-off or if there’s a shiny new bolt station nearby, obviously it may be faster and easier to frig your way over there. That never seems to happen to me, but I do run into all sorts of sketchy looking fixed anchors attached to all manner of trees, shrubs, rocks, blocks, icicles, threads, pins, etc. Usually they have eleventeen different pieces of tat all semi-equalized somehow, and it still looks sketchy. My rule of thumb is always back up my anchor—but that may not mean leaving anything behind. Often what I’ll do is create my own separate anchor, unweighted by the rappel rope through the fixed anchor, so that I have the opportunity to vigorously bounce-test the fixed one. If anything rips, I’m protected by my backup, and then can start leaving all my own gear…more likely the anchor holds even my heavily aggressive more-than-double-my-body-weight testing, and I can safely clean my backup (after my partner completes the rappel) without leaving a thing behind. I do the same thing with fixed V-threads. Place a screw or two far enough away that if the thread rips it won’t undermine your placement, and clip it to the rappel rope as well—it’s important that the rappel rope does not weight your backup anchor, or you won’t be testing the fixed one. This way, any anchor you see on the ice, as well as most tree and pin anchors, can be tested to ensure their solidity. It doesn’t hurt to carry a small knife, some extra cord or web and a couple rings to replace (not just add to) the really ratty fixed stuff.

To place a V-thread, first find the area of solid ice that has the least air pockets or cracks through it. It helps to find a small pillar or convexity, as this will aid in placing the holes for the thread. Place the longest screw you can in the ice, at an angle and location that will allow you to drill another screw to meet the first hole (the convexity allows you to place a hole on either side of it, increasing the size of the ice column in between). It is nice to leave the first screw partially in the ice so you can use it as a gauge for the correct angle and location for the second screw. You will be able to see the second screw intersect the hole from the first. Push a piece of cord or 11/16’’ web through one hole, and pull it out the other with the hook you brought with you. (This can be either a homemade job from coat hanger, or a pre-fab one—several are available, Charlet Moser makes a good one that is easily available. See directions below to make one) Tie the ends of the cord together, and you’re done. If the hole is shallow, or cracked, or hollow ice, or you’re just into public service, place a second thread 18’’ or so above the first, so that the rappel rope weights the two cords equally. If you practice, this really only takes five minutes to make a double thread anchor—I’ve often been able to place a thread between the time that my partner finishes a pitch, calls off belay and finishes constructing an anchor, and when they put me on belay.

To make a v-thread tool, get one of the all-wire heavy-gauge coat hangers from your closet, and cut a piece of wire about fourteen inches long. Bend one end to form a loop that you can clip to a carabineer. Bend the other end into a hook that will easily fit through the inside of one of your ice screws, and sharpen the point of the hook with your file. You’re done. I fold mine into a loop, hooking the hook end through the loop so it doesn’t catch on my precious gore-tex, but be careful of this as the wire will fatigue and break before too long—luckily they’re really cheap! Good luck and be safe!

See an update from Dave, and comments below

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